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Where Did Eve Come From?
I had a dream. An odd creature, human Siamese twins emerged from Heaven and the Lord said, “Behold, they were your ancestors, the most famous couple ever, Adam and Eve”.
The tiny babies like any other healthy twins – sound sleepers – nuzzled to each other. Only after paying close attention one could discover a few peculiarities. They were joined by their sternum and their tummies were being fused. More surprisingly one of them was boy and the other baby girl. But they did not bother, too busy to sleep and suck at their thumbs.
The dream and the picture occupied my mind for weeks. First, I was horrified. Then I started pondering. It is beyond possibility, or it is not? After three-month research led by the Holy Spirit, I have forged my theory. Yes, it is possible that the most famous human couple was born as conjoined twins with different sexes. They should have separated and rose carefully until they become ready to multiply.
And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This [is] now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.(GENESIS 21-23,KJV)
The view of the Bible is an accurate account of real events has been questioned by scholars on many grounds – for example – of biblical criticism. They basically consider the Holy Books as “figments of imagination” which contradicts with almost all scientific theories. Advocates of inerrancy of the Bible take the very opposite position. They claim the Bible is accurate and free of error and does not affirm anything that is contrary to facts. The only thing which should be considered in view of unfolding facts in the Bible is the stratification of the holy text and the superimposition of different meanings of it.
Rabbinic sources teach us about the seventy faces of the Torah. They indicate there might be numerous different levels of the interpretation of the holy text. However, in spite of the differences, they have been inspired by the Holy Spirit so it represents the reality and the truth. Every verse of each book of the Holy Scripture – they claim – has its own, historical and grammatical, hinted, implicit and esoteric, secret or mystic meanings. They contend even that every individual letter of the Torah is holy.
However, when we come up against biblical verses engaged in subjects like the creation of Eve – our minds resist to the literally interpretation. We tend to settle for less and accept it that the story might be mere symbolism created to convey and catalyze moral teachings. It takes enormous faith to accept God’s words on creation of Eve as a fact which can prove scientifically.
The Sages taught us as well that God gave the tools to delve into the words of Holy Scriptures and reveal the divine wisdom hidden in them. The Holy Bible is God’s wisdom, which allows for different opinions, but God’s will is absolute and does not allow for two ways to look at things.
First question: rib or side? The meaning of the Hebrew noun tsela.
Tsela was translated “rib” in Genesis 2:21, KJV. However, it also translated side (19), chamber (11), boards (2), corners (2), beams (1), halting (1), leaves (1), planks (1) in the other verses of the Bible. (The numbers in the brackets show us how many times the given translation happens in the Bible.) Take to note the meaning of “side” can be found in 19 verses of the holy text, the one of the “rib” only in two of them. Ethan Dor-Shav wrote: “In the bible the common word tzela always means side or flank, like a side of a square, or a flank (side) of the tabernacle, the ark, or the altar. The side of anything, as of a building as in: “On its two flanks on its two sides” (Exodus 37:27). The biblical term is also used for the flank of a mountain, and for protecting one’s flank in war. On the other hand, the term is never used for a bone in the chest, making the Genesis translation as “rib” utterly bogus.”[i]
“This amazing record of how the first woman came into being has been the object of much ridicule,” – Henry Morris, PhD writes in his article – “but it is completely and literally true. However, the “rib” which God used was most likely not a rib at all. Rather, the Hebrew word in most of its occurrences is translated either “side” or “side chamber.” This would be a better translation here, as well. It may be that Eve’s body was formed by God from Adam’s side, or from something within the “chamber” of his side.”
As compared the King James Version to other Bible translations, for example, to the Amplified Bible, the latter allows for the ambiguity of the word tzela.
“And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam; and while he slept, He took one of his ribs or a part of his side and closed up the [place with] flesh. And the rib or part of his side which the Lord God had taken from the man He built up and made into a woman, and He brought her to the man.” (Genesis 21-22, AB).
The New Living Translation in a footnote suggests the translation “took a part of the man’s side” instead of the “took one of his ribs.”
“We conclude from this short analysis that there is no real justification to render the word in Genesis 2:21 as Adam’s rib. Rather, it should be Adam’s side” – Wayne Simpson stated in his remarkable article. [ii] Amen.
Amazing Terra Cotta Sculpture from Iron Age
Some of the earliest examples of sophisticated sculpture in sub-SaharanAfricacame from the Nok culture, an Iron Age civilization. The culture appeared around 1000 B.C. and mysteriously vanished around 500 AD in the region of West Africa.
In 1928 Lt-Colonel John Dent-Young was leading mining operations in the Nigerian villageof Nok. Close to the village, near to the Jos Plateau region one of his miners found a small piece of terra cotta sculpture. Later, terra cottas scattered at various depths throughout the Sahelgrasslands were unearthed. The sculptures range in size from small pendants to life-size figures. Today several items of them can be seen at the BarakatFamilyMuseum. One of them is worth of our special attention, a 31 x 16 cm sculpture of a sitting couple.[iii]
Memorialized in clay, this couple represents a pair of conjoined, or Siamese, twins who makes the artifact unmatched and breath-taking. Conjoined twins are one of the rarest forms of twinning and would certainly be interpreted as a most ominous event at any time and in any community. This sculpture captures the spectacle of this natural wonder. However, there is something else too. It is well known that conjoined twins is always monozygotic, therefore, either males or females. Nevertheless, the artist represented one twin as female (with breasts) and the other as male (without breast and who also appears to be taller than the female co-twin).
The seated couple share one leg and are connected at the torso. Although they wear two necklaces in the front, the necklace appears as one in the back. This gorgeous sculpture must have honored a most spectacular and sacred pair of beings in the ancient times. M. L. MarÃnez FrÃas considers the amazing Nok artifact as a representation of the very first known case of conjoined twins with different sexes in human history.
Why did the artist represent one twin female and the other male? It cannot be conjoined, monozygotic twins with different sexes! A mysterious ancient culture – the only rational answer might come to our mind – produced a mystical figurine for religious purposes without any intention of having it been connected to the reality.
But can really not be monozygotic twins with different sexes?
The first and only reported case of conjoined twins presenting morphologically different sexes
In 2007 Kim and co-workers published what appears to be the first and only reported case of conjoined twins, presenting external and internal genitalia of morphologically different sexes. (In spite of the distinct different sexual appearances microscopic examination showed that internal genitalia had oocytes in both twins and chromosomal studies documented that both were females (XX).)[iv]
The scientific explanation of those rare and shocking phenomena calls for a short introduction first.
Some background information
One of the most interesting physical defects present in a baby at birth is the conjoined twins, more commonly known as Siamese twins. Conjoined twins are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births.[v] The process by which monozygotic twins does not fully separate but form conjoined twins is not well understood. Two contradicting theories exist to explain the origins of them.
Conjoining is the result of the imperfect separation of identical twin embryos some researchers claim. Others suggest that conjoined twins are the result of embryo’s fusing back together some time after their initial separation.
The classification of conjoined twins is based upon the site of the union. For example, if the two bodies fused at the xiphoid process (the extension of the lower part of the sternum which along with the ribs forms the rib cage), then we talk about Xiphopagus conjoined twins. (Which makes this type of malformation unique is that the twins almost never share any vital organs, except for the liver. That means the separation process may be performed successfully – though it is always a daunting challenge to the surgeon. In case of any other type of conjoined twins the surgical intervention if indicated usually means a sacrifice one twin for the other.
Conjoined twinnings have risen religious, moral, ethical, and legal issues throughout the history and highly divisive even today within the medical, clerical and legal communities.
There was only one thing everybody agreed until recently that conjoined (monozygotic) twins were absolutely “identical.” The XX egg produces female conjoined twins. An XY egg does male one.
Shocking genetic-epigenetic divergences in monozygotic twins
Monozygotic twins are remarkably similar. However, there are some equally remarkable exceptions that show that monozygotic twins do not have to be “identical.” There are several cases in which identical twins can have discordant phenotypes. The major routes involve aneuploidy, X-chromosome inactivation differences, imprinting, and circulatory differences.
Aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes. It occurs during cell division when the chromosomes do not separate properly between the two cells. Chromosome abnormalities occur in 1 of 160 live births. Most cases of an aneuploidy results in termination of the developing fetus, but there can be cases of alive birth.
For example, take the situation of an egg fertilized by a Y-bearing sperm. It has been found that monozygotic twinning is associated with higher than normal amounts of aneuploidy; so it is possible that if twinning were to occur through the failure of the first two blastomeres to adhere to one another, aneuploidy might also occur. In that situation, the twins would have different chromosome complements. If the aneuploidy were for the X chromosome, one twin might be by male (XY or XYY) while the other would be female (XO). Such male/female “identical twins” has been found. These twins would be assumed dizygotic, when they actually had originated monozygotically.
Between the concepts of monozygous twins and dizygous twins is the idea of polar body twins. In cases of Polar body twins one sperm is thought to fertilize the egg, while another sperm is thought to fertilize a polar body.
Monozygotic twins are rarely absolutely “identical” claims Geoffrey Machin in his remarkable study. “There are different types of genetic-epigenetic and prenatal environmental post-zygotic mechanisms that cause discordance within such twins pairs. Some of these mechanism – raging from heterokaryotypia (aneuploidy) to skewed X chromosoma inactivation – may cause extreme discordance. Because the entrenched misconception that monozygotic twins are necesserely identical, many twin pairs mistakenly designated as dyzigotic. This simplistic view remains a cornerstone for most parents and health care professionals however it is steadily being eroded by recent refinements in our understanding of the mechanisms that modify gene structure and expression during meiozis and mitozis.
Some of these divergences occur embryonic stem cells soon after zygosis perhaps in concert with events that underlie determination and differentiation of axes, organs and tissues during embryogenesis.”
For example a pair of monozygotic twins with discordant female-male phenotype both have 46, XY karyotype and no mutation was found in the SRY conserved motif. (SRY, Sex-determining region Y is a sex-determining gene on the Y chromosome.) The male had mixed gonadal dysgenesis, the female had pure gonadal dysgenesis.[vi].
Although discordant karyotypes are known in identical twins, cases involving differences in sex phenotype are rare. The author studied identical twins with the 46,XY karyotype – a male with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and a female with “pure” gonadal dysgenesis. Monozygosity was indicated by short tandem repeat polymorphism analysis. These observations could be attributed to (i) mutation and mosaicism involving “downstream” sex-determining loci, (ii) variable penetrance of genes such asDSS/NR0B1, duplication of which can disrupt the male-determining pathway, or (iii) occurrence of cryptic 45,X gonadal cell lines.
Behold, the only thing everybody agreed about conjoined twins by now has been overthrown.
Before we make a further progress of laying down the foundation of our theory let us secede from the monozygotic twins and summarize the modern conception on sex.
The word “sex” or “gender”
The word “sex” originally refers to nothing more than the division of the human race into two camps: females and males. Every individual belongs to one of the two sexes. However, in some cases, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a particular individual is female or male. For an exact determination of sex, one has to distinguish between at least seven factors, and each of these factors can have atypical exceptions:
1. Chromosomal sex or genetic sex determined by the presence of the XX (female) or the XY (male) genotype in somatic cells (regardless to phenotypic manifestations).
2. Gonadal sex determined by the gonadal tissue present (ovarian or testicular).
3. Hormonal sex (or phenotypic sex, the phenotypic manifestations of sex determined by endocrine influences.
4. Internal accessory reproductive structures
5. External sex organs (or morphological sex determined by the morphology of the external genitals).
6. Sex of assignment or rearing
7. Sexual Self-identification
The seven factors determining a person’s sex – in both their typical and atypical variations – are independent of each other. Therefore, in individual cases, there are a great number of possible combinations. Thus, in humans, “sex” turns out to be a complex phenomenon with biological, psychological, and social aspects.[vii]
Now let’s back to our original subject. Our next question
Is there any chance that separated conjoined monozygotic twins is capable to multiply?
On extremely rare occasions, an original XXY zygote may form monozygotic boy-girl twins by dropping the XY chromosomes for one twin and the extra XO chromosome for the other or for some reason, after the zygote splits; one twin loses a Y chromosome and develops as a female. (It’s extremely rare; less than ten cases have been confirmed.) The female twin would be afflicted with Turner’s syndrome.
Turner’s syndrome is a sex chromosomal aberration found in approximately one in 2000-2500 live born girls. The most common karyotype is monosomy, with a complete loss of one sex chromosome (45,X). It is found in 40-50% of Turner’s syndrome. Mosaicism occurs in 30-40% including (45,X/46,XX) with a normal cell line.
Infertility caused by ovarian failure is a characteristic feature in Turner syndrome. Spontaneous pregnancies are seen in 2-5% of these women, and up to 30% have at least some pubertal development, indicating the presence of follicles in their ovaries in adolescence. Adolescent girls with Turner’s syndrome still have follicles in their ovarian cortical tissue raises the possibility of future fertility.[viii]
Behold, there has been such a creature as conjoined, monozygotic, boy-girl twins. Moreover, there has been a chance that the girl still has follicles raises the possibility of future fertility. However, because of the probability of the phenomena is so vanishingly small, in the general public’s mind it lives as one of the biological impossibilities. And it exactly is which brings Eve’s case from myth to reality.
The separation surgery
The separation surgery of conjoined twins is one of the major challenges of any expert teams. The intervention usually is best delayed until the twins are relatively mature – six-twelve months of age. Improved recent survival is probably the result from the availability of more accurate imaging studies and enhanced (1) anesthetic and (2) operative techniques and (3) immediate reconstruction using of skin expanders and prosthetic mesh or autologous tissue to close up the wound. The steps of the separation surgery cited from a medical textbook above shockingly resembles to the description of Adam’s “biblical” surgery based on Genesis 2:21. And the Lord God caused a (1) deep sleep to fall upon Adam; and while he slept, He (2) took a part of his side and (3) closed up the flesh instead thereof.” (Genesis,2:21KJV)
Closed up the flesh instead thereof or closed up the place with flesh
The key word here the Hebrew “tachath” which means “instead of”. The KJV and the ASV(American Standard Version) are the only two translations which use the term of “closed up the flesh instead thereof”. The Amplified Bible for example goes with the expression of “closed up the [place with] flesh”. Both the instead of and the place mean the defect (i.e. wound) emerged from the separation surgery. (They could not refer to rib, because replacing a rib with flesh does not make any sense regarding any kind of surgical intervention.)
While the description of the first two steps to the procedure almost fits to every operative intervention accomplished on a human body, the third step “closed up the place with flesh” restricts our horizon to a very narrow area of the surgical activities namely to the reconstructive procedures.
Now it is time to reveal our theory which of course necessitates further proofs as follow soon. However considering all data we presented so far it might be assumed that the most famous human couple was born as conjoined twins. They were separated and raised carefully and after that they were reunited to multiply.
If the case report of the conjoined Adam and Eve would have been available, we had read: “Fully developed conjoined twins with different chromosomal, gonadal, morphological and phenotypical sexes, joined at the upper chest from the clavicle to the sternum. There are separate heads, upper limbs. Genitalia in both twins exposed. Twins with discordant female-male phenotype which one has 46, XY and the other 46 XO karyotype. (An original XXY zygote formed monozygotic boy-girl twins by dropping the XY chromosomes for one twin and the extra XO chromosome for the other or for some reason, after the zygote splits, one twin lost a Y chromosome and developed as a female with Turner’s syndrome.”
The next mystery
Gen.2:22 says, “And the rib (side), which Jehovah God had taken from the man, made (banah) he a woman, and brought her to the man” (American Standard Version). This translation renders the Hebrew verb banah as made in English. It is an interesting pick up of the possible meaning of the world banah if we consider how many times the Hebrew word occurs in the Bible (376) and being translated in the Authorized Version (KJV) as – build (340), build up (14), builder (10), made (3), built again, repair (2), set up (2), have children(1), obtain children(1), surely (1).
Now look at the following verse: (Gen. 16:2) “And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children (banah) by her.[ix] That is to say there is a possible meaning of our verse like this “And the side, which Jehovah God had taken from the man, was raised as he may be obtain children and brought her to the man”.
Another interpretation of ‘God made him a woman’: R. Hisda stated: This teaches that the Holy One, blessed be He, built Eve in the shape of a storehouse. As a storehouse is made wide below and narrow above so that it may contain the produce, so was the womb of a woman made wide below and narrow above so that it may contain the embryo.[x] That is so true, but the banah refers much more complicated process Eve was submitted.
“Women with Turner’s syndrome should be carefully followed throughout life. Growth hormone therapy should be started at age 2-5 years. Hormone replacement therapy for the development of normal female sexual characteristics should be started at age 12-15 years and continued for the long term to prevent coronary artery disease and osteoporosis. Most women with Turner’s syndrome have ovarian dysgenesis; therefore, they are usually infertile, and in very rare cases have spontaneous menses followed by early menopause.
Only 2% (according other sources 2-5%) of the women have natural pregnancies” according to Abir R. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, RabinMedicalCenter)
Eve had. She brought into the world Cain and Abel.
Men Are from Mars. Women Are from Venus.
In the title of the enormously popular book by John Gray, the writer asserts the notion that men and women are as different as beings from other planets. If we insist to this image, we should put it this way: Men are heading to Mars, Women to Venus.
The fact is that the different genders of our race, male and female originated from sole being, an odd and very rare creature, and conjoined twins. While one twin presented the features of male gender (XY chromosomal sex, the gonadal tissue is testicular, external male sex organs, etc.), the other’s karyotype and phenotype resemble the ones which women with Turner-syndrome have. Since that time of the birth of our conjoined twins, the male and the female offspring of their have diverged for generations and generations due to the great deal of biological, psychological, and social influences.
Many scholars have observed the idea that the first man and woman were joined together a single androgynous (i.e. having the characteristics or nature of both male and female or neither specifically feminine nor masculine) creature is legitimately suggested by the biblical text itself.
Rabbinic sources claim that the First Man, Adam was a dual-entity who was then split either between front and back. R. Jeremiah b. Eleazar said: The first man had two full faces, for it is said in Scripture: Thou hast shaped me behind and before (Psalm 139:5).
Rosehill Publishing 2012 All rights reserved
[ii] Copyright 1996 by Wayne Simpson Distributed by the Biblical Research Foundation 629 Lexington Road, Sapulpa, OK 74066
[iv] Kim S. C., Jo DS, Jang K Y, Cho S C. 2007. Extremely rare case of cephalothoracopagus characterized by differences of external genitalia, 27:1151-1153. 1596 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS
[v] A multicenter worldwide research including the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32-1.62). Conjoined twins: A worldwide collaborative epidemiological study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics, 157: 274-287.
[vi] Somkuti at all 2000
[viii] (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3618-3623, 2002 Follicles Are Found in the Ovaries of Adolescent Girls with Turner’s Syndrome OUTI HOVATTA).
[ix] Blue Letter Bible. “Dictionary and Word Search for ‘”be that I may obtain children”‘ in the KJV”. Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2012.14 Apr 2012. http://www.blueletterbible.org/search/translationResults.cfm?
[x] Eruvin 18b
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