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12 Aspects of Any Speaker’s Semantic Knowledge You Should Know
Semantics is a branch of Linguistics that studies the meaning of language and it tries to understand what meaning is as an element of language and how it is constructed in language as well as interpreted, covered and understood by speakers and listeners of the language. We as speakers of a language have implicit knowledge about what is meaningful in our language. In our account of what that knowledge is, there are at least twelve technical terms that are used as aspects of our semantic knowledge: polysemy, homonymy, anomaly; paraphrase; synonymous; semantic component; offense; conflict; ambiguity; adjacent pairs; entallment and presupposition although it is not possible to expect that we can clearly explain all the words we know or use, but the obvious thing is that we can communicate our thoughts and feelings and intentions to other speakers of the language and understand what others are. say.
This ability requires the possession of a vocabulary and for us as speakers to know how to pronounce each item in this vocabulary and how to recognize its pronunciation by other speakers. We know how to use vocabulary in the production of meaningful sentences and to understand the sentences made by others. And of course we know meanings—how to choose things that express what we want to express and how to find meanings in what other people say.
We can know that a word is polysemous when it has two or more related meanings. In this case the word has one form but can be used to mean two different things. In the case of polysemy, these two meanings must be related in some way, and not two completely unrelated meanings of the word, for example: bright (shining) and brilliant (intelligent). mouse (animal) and mouse (computer hardware).
Homophony is similar to polysemy because it refers to a word form that has two meanings, although a word is a homophone if the two meanings are completely unrelated, for example:
Bat (flying mammal) and bat (sports equipment).
Pen (writing instrument) and pen (small cage).
We know, in general, whether something is meaningful or not in our language and we know which of the following are meaningful in English.
3a Grace wrote a letter. 3b Henry smiled. 3c The grass laughed. 3d a Wall Harry painted.
We can see that 3a and 3b are meaningful to English speakers, while 3c and 3d are anomalous (examples of anomaly), it is generally accepted as correct while sentence 3c is seen as meaningful and it can achieve the meaning of some children’s stories or the like, while 3d is just a sequence of words.
The following first and second pairs of sentences have the same meaning and otherwise they are like the following sentences:
4a Agnes came before Ruth. 4b Ruth arrived before Agnes.
4c Agnes came home after Ruth. 4d Ruth recovered from Agnes.
Sentences that make equivalent statements about the same entities, such as 4a and 4c, or 4b and 4d, are paraphrases (of each other).
We generally agree when two words have the same meaning—in a given context. In each sentence under one word is underlined. Following the sentence is a group of words, one of which can replace the offending word without changing the meaning of the sentence.
5a Where did you buy these tools?
use buy release modify take
5b At the end of the road we saw two large statues,
pink smooth very beautiful original
Words that have the same meaning in a given context are synonyms—they are examples of synonymy and are similar to each other.
We recognize when the meaning of one sentence contradicts another sentence. The sentences below are about the same person, but both of them are related in such a way that if one is true the other must be false.
6a Edgar is married. 6b Edgar is quite rich.
6c Edgar is not a child anymore. 6d Edgar is a bachelor.
Sentences that make opposite statements about the same topic are contradictory.
We usually agree when two words have opposite meanings in a given context. We can choose from the group of words that follow 7a and 7b the word that is the opposite of the underlined word in each sentence.
7a Betty cut a thick slice of cake. 7b The train leaves at 12:25.
bright new soft thin wet come leaves waiting swerves
We see two words that make opposite statements about the same subject are antonyms; they are antonyms, examples of antonymy.
We know that synonyms and antonyms must have some common elements of meaning to be the same or different but words can have some elements of meaning that are not the same or different example:
8a street lane road house avenue 8b buy use steal get inheritance
The common element of meaning, shared by all but one word in 8a and all but one object in 8b, is a semantic feature. We all have to agree that in each of the groups of words above, 8a and 8b, all but one of the words have something in common and we know what the word does not belong to.
If some sentences have double meaning, they can be interpreted in two ways. We recognize this fact that there must be a two-way interpretation, as follows.
9a Marjorie doesn’t care about her parakeet. ((dislike it; don’t care for it)
9b Marjorie takes the sick parakeet to a small animal hospital. (small hospital for animals; hospital for small animals)
One of the aspects of how meaning works in language is ambiguity. A sentence is ambiguous if it has two or more possible meanings, but how does ambiguity arise in language? A sentence may be ambiguous for any of the following reasons:
Lexical Ambiguity: A sentence is ambiguous in the lexicon if it has two or more possible meanings because it is polysemous (words with two or more related meanings) or homophonous (a word with two or more which have different meanings) words.
Example of a lexically ambiguous sentence: The pampams appeal to the Pope. This sentence is ambiguous because the word ‘appeal’ is polysemous and can mean ‘ask for help’ or ‘appeal to’.
Structural Ambiguity: A sentence is structurally ambiguous if it has two or more possible meanings because the words it contains can be combined in different ways to produce different meanings.
Example of a structurally ambiguous sentence: An angry cow injured the farmer with an axe. In this sentence the ambiguity comes from the fact that ‘with an axe’ can refer to a farmer, or to the act of hurting done (to a cow) ‘with an axe’.
If a question and answer, or any two words, can occur together in a conversation and the second is clearly related to the first, it constitutes an adjacent pair.
10a When was the last time you wrote an article?
Ten minutes passed. It was Tuesday. It’s very nice. Around noon. I think it was the first of June.
10b There’s a new film at Studio 21 tonight.
So I heard. What is that called? When was it opened? Me too. Are you sure this is a joke?
The ability to deal with pairs of adjacencies is considered part of any speaker’s implicit knowledge.
We know that two statements can be related in such a way that if one is true, the other must also be true as in the following examples of entailment.
11a There are apples in the fridge.
11b There is fruit in the fridge.
11c The ladder is too short to reach the roof.
11d The ladder is not tall enough to reach the roof.
We believe that 11a and 11b are almost in the same garden, the truth of 11a constitutes the truth of 11b, that is, if 11a is true, 11b must also be true. Similarly, considering the same ladder and roof, the truth of 11c includes the truth of 11d.
There are two types of entailment: mutual entailment and asymmetrical entailment. Conversely, each sentence must be true in order for the other to be true, e.g.: John married Rachel’ and ‘Rachel is John’s wife’, ‘Chris is a man’ and ‘Chris is a man’, while in asymmetrical entailment, only one of the sentences has to be true for the other to be true, but that sentence can be true without any other sentence having to be true, for example: ‘Rachel is John’s wife’ entails ‘John is married’ (but John married does not need Rachel to be his wife), ‘Rachel has two brothers’ means ‘Rachel is not an only child’ (but Rachel not being an only child does not require Rachel to have two brothers ).
We know that the message conveyed in a sentence may presuppose other pieces of knowledge. For example, if 12a is accepted as true, 12b-12e must also be accepted as true.
12a Evan usually drives his Toyota to work.
12b There was a man named Evan.
12c Evan works.
12d There is a Toyota that belongs to Evan.
12e Evan knows how to drive a car.
The meaning of sentence 12a means what is stated in 12b, c, d and e. The latter are the presuppositions of 12a. Note that a presupposition does not establish the truth of anything. Sentence 12a is meaningful, but it is only true if there is a person named Evan, who works and owns a Toyota, etc.
In summary, more than 12 terms are introduced to show the hidden knowledge we have about our language, the general implicit knowledge we have about the meaning of our language. We can deal with it successfully, we are very different, and the circumstances are very different, depending on the way we behave as individuals in a situation or context, it does not necessarily reflect what our deeper abilities are, there are reasons personality that includes such as willingness to cooperate, memory, attention, recent experience that influences our performance.
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